Appendix A — Division B

Explanatory Material

A-1.1.2.1.(1) Objectives and Functional Statements Attributed to Acceptable Solutions
The objectives and functional statements attributed to each change beginBy-lawchange end provision are shown in Table 2.8.1.1. at the end of Division B.
Many provisions in Division B serve as modifiers of or pointers to other provisions or serve other clarification or explanatory purposes. In most cases, no objectives and functional statements have been attributed to such provisions, which therefore do not appear in the above-mentioned table.
For provisions that serve as modifiers of or pointers to other referenced provisions and that do not have any objectives and functional statements attributed to them, the objectives and functional statements that should be used are those attributed to the provisions they reference.

contentHistory

A-1.3.1.2.(1) Referenced Documents
Where documents are referenced in the Appendices of this change beginBy-lawchange end, they shall be the editions designated in Table A-1.3.1.2.(1)
Table A-1.3.1.2.(1)
Documents Referenced in the Appendices of change beginBook II (Plumbing Systems) of the change beginBy-lawchange endchange end
Issuing Agency Document Number(1) Title of Document(2) change beginBy-lawchange end Reference
change beginASHRAEchange end change begin2009change end change beginASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentalschange end change beginA-2.6.3.1.(2)change end
change beginASHRAE 2011 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Applications A-2.6.3.1.(2)change end
change beginASME B16.3-2011 Malleable-Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 150 and 300 Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASME B16.4-2011 Gray Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASME B16.15-2011 Cast Copper Alloy Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASME B16.18-2012 Cast Copper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASMEchange end B16.22-2001 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
change beginASME B16.23-2011 Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings: DWV Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASMEchange end B16.29-change begin2007change end Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings – DWV Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
change beginASPE 2010 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook A-2.6.3.1.(2)change end
ASPE change begin2008change end Data Book – Volume 4, Chapter 8, Grease Interceptors A-2.4.4.3.(1)
change beginASTM A 53/A 53M-10 Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM A 269-10 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM A 312-11 Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM B 42-10 Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM B 43-09 Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM B 88-09 Seamless Copper Water Tube Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginASTM B 306-09 Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
ASTM D 2466change begin-06change end Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
ASTM D 2467change begin-06change end Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
ASTM D 3138change begin-04change end Solvent Cements for Transition Joints Between Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Non-Pressure Piping Components A-2.2.5.10. to 2.2.5.12.
ASTM F 628change begin-08change end Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe With a Cellular Core Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
change beginASTM F 714-10 Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
AWWA change beginM14-change end2004 change beginRecommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Controlchange end Table A-2.6.2.4.(2)
change beginAWWA ANSI/AWWA C151/A21.51-2009 Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast, for Water Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginBCchange end change beginS.B.C. 2003, c. 53change end change beginEnvironmental Management Actchange end change beginA-2.7.4.1.change end
change beginCCBFCchange end change beginNRCC 35951change end change beginGuidelines for Application of Part 3 of the National Building Code of Canada to Existing Buildingschange end change beginA-1.1.1.1.(1)change end
change beginCCBFCchange end change beginNRCC 40383change end change beginUser’s Guide – NBC 1995, Fire Protection, Occupant Safety and Accessibility (Part 3)change end change beginA-1.1.1.1.(1)change end
change beginCCBFCchange end change beginNRCC 43963change end change beginUser’s Guide – NBC 1995, Application of Part 9 to Existing Buildingschange end change beginA-1.1.1.1.(1)change end
change beginCCBFCchange end change beginNRCC 53301change end change beginNational Building Code of Canada 2010change end change beginTable A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.4.10.
A-2.4.10.4.(1)change end
change beginCCBFCchange end change beginNRCC 53543change end change beginUser’s Guide – NBC 2010, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B)change end change beginA-1.1.1.1.(1)change end
CGSB CAN/CGSB-34.1-94 Asbestos-Cement Pressure Pipe Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
CGSB CAN/CGSB-34.9-94 Asbestos-Cement Sewer Pipe Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
CGSB CAN/CGSB-34.22-94 Asbestos-Cement Drain Pipe Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
CGSB CAN/CGSB-34.23-94 Asbestos-Cement House Connection Sewer Pipe Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
CSA A60.1-M1976 Vitrified Clay Pipe Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-A257.1-09 Non-Reinforced Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe, and Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-A257.2-09 Reinforced Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe, and Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA B64.4.1-11 Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventers for Fire Protection Systems (RPF) Table A-2.6.2.4.(2)change end
change beginCSA B64.5.1-11 Double Check Valve Backflow Preventers for Fire Protection Systems (DCVAF) Table A-2.6.2.4.(2)change end
change beginCSA B64.6.1-11 Dual Check Valve Backflow Preventers for Fire Protection Systems (DuCF) Table A-2.6.2.4.(2)change end
change beginCSA B64.9-11 Single Check Valve Backflow Preventers for Fire Protection Systems (SCVAF) Table A-2.6.2.4.(2)change end
change beginCSA B64.10.1-11 Maintenance and Field Testing of Backflow Preventers A-2.6.2.1.(3)change end
change beginCSA B70-12 Cast Iron Soil Pipe, Fittings, and Means of Joining Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA B125.3-12 Plumbing Fittings A-2.6.1.11.(1)change end
CSA change beginCAN/CSA-change endB127.1-99 Asbestos Cement Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
CSA B127.2-M1977 Components for Use in Asbestos Cement Building Sewer Systems Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.1-09 Polyethylene (PE) Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Cold-Water Pressure Services Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.2-09 Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Injection-Moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure Applications Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.3-09 Rigid Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.5-09 Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.7.(1)change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.6-09 Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride (CPVC) Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution Systems Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.10. to 2.2.5.12.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.9-09 Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure-Pipe Systems Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.13.(1)change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.10-09 Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) Composite Pressure-Pipe Systems Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.14.(1)change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B137.11-09 Polypropylene (PP-R) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.15.(1)change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B181.1-11 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.10. to 2.2.5.12.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B181.2-11 Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride (CPVC) Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
A-2.2.5.10. to 2.2.5.12.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B181.3-11 Polyolefin and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Laboratory Drainage Systems Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B182.1-11 Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B182.2-11 PSM Type Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B182.4-11 Profile Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
change beginCSA CAN/CSA-B182.6-11 Profile Polyethylene (PE) Sewer Pipe and Fittings For Leak-Proof Sewer Applications Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.change end
CSA change beginCAN/CSA-change endG401-change begin07change end Corrugated Steel Pipe Products Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
McGraw-Hill change begin2006change end change beginInternational Plumbing Codes Handbookchange end A-2.6.3.
NIST Building Materials and Structures Report BMS-79, 1941 Water-Distributing Systems for Buildings A-2.6.3.
Notes to Table A-1.3.1.2.(1):

(1) Some documents may have been reaffirmed or reapproved. Check with the applicable issuing agency for up-to-date information.
(2) Some titles have been abridged to omit superfluous wording.

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A-2.1.2.1.(2) Combined Building Drains
Combined building drains may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities and their acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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A-2.1.2.4.(1) Service Piping
The layout as shown in Figure A-2.1.2.4.(1)(c) may require special legal arrangements in some jurisdictions to ensure that access can be provided to all parts of the service pipes.
Figure A-2.1.2.4.(1)
Service Piping
A-2.2.2.3.(3) Shower Drainage (Plan View)
Figure A-2.2.2.3.(3)
Shower Drainage (Plan View)
A-2.2.2.4.(1) Concealed Overflows
This does not preclude the use of a standing waste.
A-2.2.3.1.(1) and (3) Trap Seal Depth and Trap Connections
Figure A-2.2.3.1.(1) and (3)
Trap Seal Depth and Trap Connections
A-2.2.3.1.(4) Prohibited Traps
Except for an S-trap standard, the S-trap shown in Figure A-2.2.3.1.(4)(b) is prohibited by Clause 2.5.6.3.(1)(b), which limits the fall on fixture drains. Crown vented traps shown in Figure A-2.2.3.1.(4)(c) are prohibited by Clause 2.5.6.3.(1)(a), which requires that the distance from the trap weir to the vent be not less than twice the size of the fixture drain.
Figure A-2.2.3.1.(4)
Prohibited Traps
A-2.2.4.1. T Fittings in Drainage Systems
The use of a cross fitting in a drainage system is prohibited, but such fitting may be used in a venting system to connect 4 vent pipes. In a drainage system, a T fitting can only be used as shown in Figure A-2.2.4.1.(a), and cannot be used as shown in Figure A-2.2.4.1.(b) because the T or cross fitting would change the direction of flow in the drainage system.
Figure A-2.2.4.1.
T Fittings in Drainage Systems
A-2.2.4.2. Sanitary T Fittings in Drainage Systems
A sanitary T fitting may be used to change the direction of flow in a drainage system from horizontal to vertical, but may not be used to change the direction of flow in a nominally horizontal drainage system. A combination Y and 1/8th bend fitting may also be used as shown in Figure A-2.2.4.2.(b).
Figure A-2.2.4.2.
Sanitary T Fittings in Drainage Systems
A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7. Pipe and Fitting Applications
Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
Summary of Pipe and Fitting Applications
Forming part of Appendix Note A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.
Types of Piping and Fittings Standard References change beginBy-lawchange end References

Use of Piping and Fittings(1)

Drainage System Venting System Potable Water System
Above-ground inside building Under-ground under building Building sewer Above-ground Under-ground Above-ground Underground
Cold Hot Under building Outside building
Asbestos-cement DWV pipe
Type I Class 3 000, sizes 8-in. to 24-in.

CAN/CGSB-34.22

or CAN/CSA-B127.1

2.2.5.1.(1) P P P P P N N N N
Type II Class 4 000, sizes 3-in. to 24-in.   2.2.5.1.(1) P P P P P N N N N
Asbestos-cement sewer pipe (non-pressure)
Classes 1 500, 2 400, 3 000, sizes 4-in., 5-in., 6-in.

CAN/CGSB-34.23

or CSA B127.2-M

2.2.5.1.(2) N P P N P N N N N
Classes 1 500, 2 400, 3 300, 4 000, 5 000, 6 000, 7 000, sizes 8-in. to 42.2-in.

CAN/CGSB-34.9

2.2.5.1.(2) N P P N P N N N N
Asbestos-cement water pipe
Class 100 psi

CAN/CGSB-34.1

2.2.5.2. N N N N N N N

P(2)

P(2)

Class 150 psi                      
Class 200 psi                      
Concrete sewer pipe CSA Series A257                    
Sewer, storm drain and culvert

CAN/CSA-A257.1

2.2.5.3. N

P(3)

P N N N N N N
Reinforced culvert, storm drain and sewer

CAN/CSA-A257.2

2.2.5.3. N

P(3)

P N N N N N N
Vitrified clay pipe

CSA A60.1-M

2.2.5.4. N P P N P N N N N
Polyethylene water pipe and tubing
Series 160 sizes with compression fittings

CAN/CSA-B137.1

2.2.5.5. N N N N N N N

P(4)

P(4)

Series 50, 75, 100 and 125   2.2.5.5. N N N N N N N N N
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe (SDR-PR) based on outside diameter

ASTM F 714

2.2.5.6.(1)

N

P

P

N

P

N

N

N

N

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pressure fittings

CAN/CSA-B137.2

2.2.5.8. N N N N Nchange endchange end

P(5)(6)

N P P
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) water pipe
Dimension ratios (DR) or standard dimension ratios (SDR) 14, 17, 18, 21, 25 and 26

CAN/CSA-B137.3

2.2.5.8. N N N N N P N

P(7)

P(7)

Schedule 40 in sizes from ½ inch to 2½ inches inclusively                      
Schedule 80 in sizes from ½ inch to 6 inches inclusively                      
PVC fittings, Schedule 40

ASTM D 2466

2.2.5.8.(2)

N

N

N

N

N

P(5)(6)

N

N

N

PVC fittings, Schedule 80

ASTM D 2467

2.2.5.8.(2)

N

N

N

N

N

P(5)(6)

N

P

P

Crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) pressure tubing

CAN/CSA-B137.5

2.2.5.7. N N N N N

P(5)(6)

P(5)(6)

P P
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) water pipe

CAN/CSA-B137.6

2.2.5.9. N N N N N

P(5)(6)(8)

P(5)(6)(8)

P(8)

P(8)

Polyethylene/Aluminum/
Polyethylene (PE/AL/PE) pressure pipe

CAN/CSA-B137.9

2.2.5.13. N N N N N

P(5)(6)

N P P
Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/
Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX/AL/PEX) pressure pipe

CAN/CSA-B137.10

2.2.5.14. N N N N N

P(5)(6)

P(5)(6)

P P
Polypropylene (PP-R) pressure pipe

CAN/CSA-B137.11

2.2.5.15. N N N N N

P(5)(6)

P(5)(6)

P P
Plastic sewer pipe PS ≥  320 kPa

CAN/CSA-B182.1

2.2.5.10. N P P N N N N N N
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) DWV pipe

CAN/CSA-B181.1

2.2.5.10.

P(5)(6)

P P

P(5)(6)

P N N N N
  2.2.5.11.                  
ABS Schedule 40 DWV pipe with a cellular core

ASTM F 628

2.2.5.10.

P(5)(6)

P

P

P(5)(6)

P

N

N

N

N

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DWV pipe

CAN/CSA-B181.2

2.2.5.10.

P(5)(6)

P P

P(5)(6)

P N N N N
  2.2.5.11.                  
PVC sewer pipe (PSM type) ≤  35-SDR

CAN/CSA-B182.2

2.2.5.10. N P P N P N N N N
Profile polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sewer pipe PS ≥  320 kPa

CAN/CSA-B182.4

2.2.5.10.(1)(f) N P P N P N N N N
Profile polyethylene sewer pipe PS ≥  320 kPa

CAN/CSA-B182.6

2.2.5.10.(1)(g) N P P N P N N N N
Polyolefin laboratory drainage systems

CAN/CSA-B181.3

2.2.8.1.

P(5)(6)

P P

P(5)(6)

P N N N N
Cast-iron soil pipe

CSA B70

2.2.6.1. P P P P P N N N N
Cast-iron water pipe

ANSI/AWWA C151/A21.51 (Ductile iron)

2.2.6.4. P P P P P P P P P
Cast-iron screwed fittings

ASME B16.4 (Cast iron)

2.2.6.5. N N N N N P P P P
 

ASME B16.3 (Malleable iron)

2.2.6.6. N N N N N P P P P
change beginStainless steel pipe

ASTM A 312

2.2.6.10. P P P P P P P P P
Stainless steel tube

ASTM A 269

2.2.6.14. N N N N N P P P Pchange end
Welded and seamless steel galvanized pipe

ASTM A 53/A 53M

2.2.6.7. P N N P Nchange endchange end

P(9)

P(9)

P(9)

P(9)

Corrugated steel galvanized pipe

CAN/CSA-G401

2.2.6.8. N N

P(10)

N N N N N N

Sheet metal pipe(11)

2.2.6.9. N N N N N N N N N
Copper and brass pipe

ASTM B 42 (Copper)

2.2.7.1. P P P P P P P P P
 

ASTM B 43 (Red brass)

2.2.7.1. P P P P P P P P P
Brass or bronze threaded water fittings

ASME B16.15

2.2.7.3. N N N N N P P P P
Copper tube
Types K and L hard temper

ASTM B 88

2.2.7.4. P P P P P P P N N
Types K and L soft temper

ASTM B 88

2.2.7.4. N N N N N P P P P
Type M hard temper

ASTM B 88

2.2.7.4. P N N P N N N N N
Type M soft temper

ASTM B 88

2.2.7.4. N N N N N N N N N
Type DWV

ASTM B 306

2.2.7.4.

P(12)

N N

P(12)

N N N N N
Solder-joint drainage fittings

ASME B16.23

2.2.7.5. P P P P P N N N N
 

ASME B16.29

                   
Solder-joint water fittings

ASME B16.18

2.2.7.6. N N N P P P P P P
 

ASME B16.22

                   
Lead waste pipe 2.2.7.8.

P(5)(6)

P N

P(5)(6)

P N N N N
N = Not permitted P = Permitted
Notes to Table A-2.2.5., 2.2.6. and 2.2.7.:

(1) Where fire stops are pierced by pipes, the integrity of the fire stop must be maintained.
(2) Cold water only.
(3) Gasketted joints required.
(4) Permitted only for water service pipe.
(5) Combustible piping in noncombustible construction is subject to the requirements of Sentence 3.1.5.16.(1) of Division B of change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end.
(6) Combustible piping that penetrates a fire separation is subject to the requirements in Articles 3.1.9.1.,9.10.9.6. and 9.10.9.7.change endchange end of Division B of change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end.
(7) Not permitted in hot water systems.
(8) Not to exceed design temperature and design pressure stated in Sentence 2.2.5.9.(2).
(9) Permitted only in buildings of industrial occupancy as described in change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end, or for the repair of existing galvanized steel piping systems.
(10) Permitted underground only in a storm drainage system.
(11) Permitted only for an external leader.
(12) Not permitted for the fixture drain or vent below the flood level rim of a flush-valve-operated urinal.

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A-2.2.5.3.(3) Concrete Fittings
Concrete fittings fabricated on the site from lengths of pipe may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities and their acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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A-2.2.5.6.(1) Polyethylene Pipe Used Underground
Joints within the high-density polyethylene pipe (HDPE) shall be heat-fused according to the manufacturer's instructions. Joints between HDPE pipes and other materials shall be made with a suitable hubless coupling.
A-2.2.5.7.(1) Crosslinked Polyethylene Pipe and Fittings
There are some special installation requirements for the use of crosslinked polyethylene pipe and its associated fittings. Reference should, therefore, be made to the installation information in CAN/CSA-B137.5, “Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications.”
A-2.2.5.10. to 2.2.5.12. Solvent Cement
The CSA standards CAN/CSA-B137.6, “Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride (CPVC) Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution Systems,”CAN/CSA-B181.1, “Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings,” and CAN/CSA-B181.2, “Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride (CPVC) Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings,” reference ASTM standard D 3138, “Solvent Cements for Transition Joints Between Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Non-Pressure Piping Components,” which specifies the colour of the solvent cement. PVC cement shall be grey, ABS cement shall be yellow, CPVC cement shall be clear and transition cement shall be white. The standard colour allows change beginBy-lawchange end users to readily determine if the correct solvent cement has been used. It should be noted that a transition cement is not an all-purpose cement.

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A-2.2.5.13.(1) Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pipe and Fittings
There are some special installation requirements for the use of polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene composite pipe and fittings. Reference should, therefore, be made to the installation information in CAN/CSA-B137.9, “Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure-Pipe Systems.”
A-2.2.5.14.(1) Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe and Fittings
There are some special installation requirements for the use of crosslinked polyethylene/aluminum/crosslinked polyethylene composite pipe and fittings. Reference should, therefore, be made to the installation information in CAN/CSA-B137.10, “Crosslinked Polyethylene/Aluminum/Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) Composite Pressure-Pipe Systems.”
A-2.2.5.15.(1) Polypropylene Pipe and Fittings
There are some special installation requirements for the use of polypropylene pipe and fittings. Reference should, therefore, be made to the installation information in CAN/CSA-B137.11, “Polypropylene (PP-R) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications.”
A-2.2.6.7.(3) Galvanized Steel Pipe
The use of galvanized steel pipe and fittings in a water distribution system may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities and its acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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change beginA-2.2.10.4.(1) Fittings in Pressure Piping Applications
Piping used in pressure applications are to be grooved and constructed using tools specifically designed for that piping material. It is important that all groove profiles are to meet the fitting manufacturer’s guidelines and conform to CSA-B242 “Groove and Shoulder-Type Mechanical Pipe Couplings.” Overly shallow roll grooved or cut connections may result in reduced working pressures at the joint or the failure of the connection due to insufficient engagement of the coupling or from slippage at the joint. Conversely, grooves or cuts that are overly deep may result in failures of the pipe stemming from corrosion or stress concentrations at the joints.
Figure A-2.2.10.4.(1)
Insufficient Key Engagement of Fitting in Roll Grooved Connectionchange end
A-2.2.10.5.(1) Saddle Hubs or Fittings
Saddle hubs or fittings may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities and their acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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change beginA-2.2.10.7. Hot Water Temperature
Hot water delivered at 60°C will severely burn human skin in 1 to 5 seconds. At 49°C, the time for a full thickness scald burn to occur is 10 minutes. Children, the elderly and persons with disabilities are particularly at risk of scald burns. Compliance with Article 2.2.10.7. will reduce the risk of scalding in showers and bathtubs, and reduce the risk of thermal shock from wall-mounted shower heads.
These requirements apply to all occupancies, not just residential occupancies.
The water outlet temperature at other fixtures, such as lavatories, sinks, laundry trays or bidets, is not addressed by Article 2.2.10.7., but a scald risk may exist at such fixtures nonetheless.change end
A-2.2.10.9.(3) Bubblers
Bubblers installed on other than drinking fountains may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities and their acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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A-2.2.10.16.(1) Air Admittance Valve
An air admittance valve is a device that is closed by gravity and seals the vent terminal at zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. The valve allows air to enter the drainage system without the use of a vent extended to outside air and prevents change begintrap siphonagechange end.
The material of the diaphragm can be damaged by exposure to acidic or corrosive fumes in the ambient atmosphere; therefore, air admittance valves should not be installed in locations where there is a potential for exposure to such fumes.
A-2.3.2.6.(1) Mechanical Joints
Storm sewer blockage can cause mechanical joints at the base of leaders to fail, which results in flooding. The failure occurs because the cleanout joints at the base of the rainwater leaders are not able to withstand the water column pressure. To avoid such failures, it is necessary to ensure that storm water systems installed using mechanical joints be braced and/or restrained at the ends of branches, changes in direction and elevation, at dead ends and at other locations as required by the manufacturer to prevent the separation of joints due to internal pressure, mechanical stress or seismic events. Care should be taken to replace cleanouts properly after maintenance or testing.
A-2.3.3.9. Linear Expansion
Figure A-2.3.3.9.
Linear Expansion
Example: To determine the expansion of 20 m of ABS pipe for a temperature change from 10°C to 60°C.
A-2.3.3.9.(1) Expansion and Contraction
Expansion and contraction in piping systems may be accommodated in a number of ways including, but not limited to, piping design and layout, material selection, and the inclusion of expansion joints.
A-2.3.3.11.(2) Air Break
Figure A-2.3.3.11.(2)
Air Break
A-2.3.4.6.(1) Support for Underground Piping
See explanation for Subsection 2.3.5. for additional protection required for underground pipes. Permitted installations are shown in Figure A-2.3.4.6.(1)(a). The methods of support shown in Figure A-2.3.4.6.(1)(b) are not permitted because the base does not provide firm and continuous support for the pipe.
Figure A-2.3.4.6.(1)
Support for Underground Piping
A-2.3.5.1.(1) Backfilling of Pipe Trench
Stronger pipes may be required in deep fill or under driveways, parking lots, etc., and compaction for the full depth of the trench may be necessary.
Figure A-2.3.5.1.(1)
Backfilling of Pipe Trench
A-2.3.5.2.(1) Protection of Underground Non-Metallic Pipes
Figure A-2.3.5.2.(1)
Protection of Underground Non-Metallic Pipes
A-2.3.7.2.(2) Pressure-Testing of Potable Water Systems
The plastic piping manufacturer should be consulted to determine the appropriateness of using air to pressure-test the piping system.
A-2.4.2.1.(1)(a)(ii) and (e)(vi) Indirect Connections
See Sentence 2.4.5.1.(4) for trapping requirements for indirectly connected fixtures.
See Sentence 2.4.7.1.(9) for cleanouts on drip pipes for food receptacles or display cases.
change begin
Figure A-2.4.2.1.(1)(a)(ii) and (e)(vi)
Indirect Connections
change end
A-2.4.2.1.(2) Soil-or-Waste Pipe Connections
Figure A-2.4.2.1.(2)
Soil-or-Waste Pipe Connections
A-2.4.2.1.(4) Suds Pressure Zones
High sudsing detergents used in clothes washers produce suds that tend to disrupt the venting action of venting systems and can also spread through the lower portions of multi-storey drainage systems. The more turbulence, the greater the suds. One solution that avoids the creation of suds pressure zones involves connecting the suds-producing stack downstream of all other stacks and increasing the size of the horizontal building drain to achieve a greater flow of air and water. Using streamlined fittings, such as wyes, tends to reduce suds formation. Check valves or backwater valves in fixture outlet pipes have also been used to correct problem installations.
change begin
Figure A-2.4.2.1.(4)
Suds pressure zones
change end
change beginA-2.4.2.1.(6) Trade Waste System.
Figure A-2.4.2.1.(6)
Trade Waste System
Notes to Figure A-2.4.2.1.(6):

(1)
This system is restricted to discharge only from product display cases, ice machines, cooler condensate and emergency discharge from heat reclaim pump.
(2)
Hydraulic load for traps in trade waste systems should be:
(a) 3 F.U. for a 3” trap
(b) 4 F.U. for a 4” trap
(3)
All drainage branches should be sloped at a min 1 in 50 for pipes up to 3” dia and 1 in 100 for 4” dia and over.
(4)
Trap arms should have a downward slope in the direction of flow with a minimum 1 in 50 slope and shall not exceed the pipe diameter.
(5)
Fixture outlet pipes should have a developed length not greater than 900 mm.
(6)
A reduction of pipe size on a horizontal branch should leave a vent at the point of reduction.
(7)
All vents should be not less than 1½” dia.
(8)
Any dry vent should roll off the top of a horizontal waste pipe where possible.
(9)
Heat reclaim trenches should be provided with an emergency pumped drain and an alarm system.
(10)
Trade Waste system sumps should be a minimum 24 inches square and up to 48" in depth. Larger sumps are required for greater depths. Sumps should have an 18" liquid depth and should be provided with a backwater valve at the outlet.
(11)
Trade waste systems should be restricted to a single floor level.change end
A-2.4.3.3.(1) Waste with Organic Solids
Equipment such as garbage grinders and potato peelers produces waste with organic solids. These devices reduce most waste into small-sized particles that will flow easily through the drainage system. However, if they are located upstream of the interceptor, the particles could block the interceptor.
A-2.4.4.3.(1) Grease Interceptors
Grease interceptors may be required when it is considered that the discharge of fats, oil or grease may impair the drainage system. Information on the design and sizing of grease interceptors can be found in ASPE 2008, “Data Book – Volume 4, Chapter 8, Grease Interceptors.”
A-2.4.4.4.(1) Bio-hazardous Waste
Chemically loaded and bio-hazardous wastes can be dangerous to private or public sewer systems and hazardous to people. The treatment of corrosive and acid waste is mandated by this change beginBy-lawchange end. The treatment of chemically loaded effluents is usually regulated by sewage collecting and treatment authorities. The treatment of bio-hazardous waste should follow “good engineering practice,” such as that described in Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines published by Health Canada. It should be noted that bio-hazardous waste disposal systems require specific engineering expertise and remain outside the scope of this change beginBy-lawchange end.

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A-2.4.5.1.(2) Trapping of Sinks and Laundry Trays
Figure A-2.4.5.1.(2)
Trapping of Sinks and Laundry Trays
Notes to Figure A-2.4.5.1.(2):

(1)
(2)
The developed length of the fixture outlet pipe shall not exceed 1 200 mm. See Article 2.4.8.2.
A-2.4.5.1.(3) Single Traps for Fixture Groups
Figure A-2.4.5.1.(3)
Single Traps for Fixture Groups
A-2.4.5.1.(5) Location of Trap or Interceptor
An interceptor that replaces a trap must be vented in the same way as the trap it replaces. (See A-2.4.2.1.(1)(a)(ii) and (e)(vi).) Where an interceptor other than an oil interceptor serves a group of fixtures requiring more than one trap, each fixture must be properly trapped and vented. (See Article 2.5.5.2. for venting of oil interceptors.)
Figure A-2.4.5.1.(5)
Location of Trap or Interceptor
A-2.4.5.2.(1) Untrapped Leader
When an untrapped leader drains to a combined building sewer, clearance requirements are the same as for vent terminals. (See also A-2.5.6.5.(4).)
A-2.4.5.3.(1) Subsoil Drainage Connections
This change beginBy-lawchange end does not regulate the installation of subsoil drainage pipes, but does regulate the connection of such pipes to the plumbing system. The intent of this Article is to place a trap between the subsoil drainage pipe and the sanitary drainage system. The cleanout must be installed in accordance with Sentence 2.4.7.1.(2). A trap or sump may be provided specifically for the subsoil drains, or advantage may be taken of the trap of a floor drain or storm water sump as shown in Figure A-2.4.5.3.(1).
Figure A-2.4.5.3.(1)
Subsoil Drainage Connections

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A-2.4.5.4.(1) Location of Building Traps
Figure A-2.4.5.4.(1)
Location of Building Traps
A-2.4.5.5.(1) Maintaining Trap Seals
Periodic manual replenishment of the water in a trap is considered to be an equally effective means of maintaining the trap seal in floor drains in residences. Under pressure differential conditions, special measures are necessary to maintain trap seals.
Figure A-2.4.5.5.(1)
Maintaining Trap Seals
A-2.4.6.3. Arrangement of Piping at Sump
In most installations, controls will be installed in conjunction with a float to automatically empty the sump. If such controls are not provided, the capacity of the sump should equal the maximum inflow to the sump that is expected to occur during any 24 h period.
Figure A-2.4.6.3.
Arrangement of Piping at Sump
A-2.4.6.4.(1) Backwater Valve or Gate Valve
The installation of a backwater valve or a gate valve in a building drain or in a building sewer may have proven acceptable on the basis of past performance in some localities, and their acceptance under this change beginBy-lawchange end may be warranted.

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A-2.4.6.4.(6) change beginDeleted.change end

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A-2.4.7.1.(1) Cleanouts for Fixture Drains
A trap cleanout plug is not acceptable as a cleanout for the fixture drain; hence, either a separate cleanout or a trap with a removable trap dip must be installed.
A-2.4.7.1.(6) Cleanouts for Drainage Systems
To accommodate the limitations of sewer cleaning equipment, the cleanout should be located as close as possible to the exterior wall of the building, either inside or outside, and be accessible for sewer cleaning equipment.
A-2.4.7.1.(9) Cleanouts for Food Receptacle Drip Pipes
Figure A-2.4.7.1.(9)
Cleanouts for Food Receptacle Drip Pipeschange end
change beginA-2.4.8.1.(1) Minimum Slope
Although slopes below 1 in 100 are permitted for pipes over 4 inches, they should be used only where necessary. Steeper slopes and higher velocities will help to keep pipes clean by moving heavier solids that might tend to clog the pipes.
A-2.4.8.2.(1) Island Fixture Installation
Figure A-2.4.8.2.(1)
Island Fixture Installation(3)
Notes to Figure A-2.4.8.2.(1):

(1)
Vent size to be in accordance with Article 2.5.6.3.
(2)
Length of A depends on trap size. Fall cannot exceed size.
(3)
A-Table 2.4.9.3. Hydraulic Loads for Laundry Traps and Floor Drains
When determining the hydraulic load on a pipe, no allowance need be made for a load from a domestic clothes washer when discharged to a laundry tray since the hydraulic load from the laundry tray is sufficient. Also no hydraulic load is required from a floor drain in a washroom since it is for emergency use only.
A-2.4.9.3.(2) Continuous Wastes
Fixture outlet pipes that are common to 2 or 3 compartments or fixtures are sometimes referred to as continuous wastes and are not considered to be branches. (See also A-2.4.5.1.(2).)
A-2.4.9.3.(3) Standpipe Illustration
Figure A-2.4.9.3.(3)
Standpipe Installation for Clothes Washers
A-2.4.10. Determination of Hydraulic Loads and Drainage Pipe Sizes
Hydraulic Loads
The hydraulic load that is imposed by a fixture is represented by a factor called a fixture unit. Fixture units are dimensionless and take into account the rate of discharge, time of discharge and frequency of discharge of the fixture.
Confusion often arises when attempts are made to convert fixture units to litres per second because there is no straightforward relationship between the two. The proportion of the total number of fixtures that can be expected to discharge simultaneously in a large system is smaller than in a small system. For example, doubling the number of fixtures in a system will not double the peak flow that the system must carry, although of course the flow will be increased somewhat. Figure A-2.4.10. shows the relationship that was used in constructing the tables of capacities of stacks, branches, sanitary building drains and sanitary building sewers (Tables 2.4.10.6.A to 2.4.10.6.C).
Although the curve in Figure A-2.4.10. was used to prepare the change beginBy-lawchange end tables, it was not included in change beginBook II (Plumbing Systems) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end. Instead, a single approximate conversion factor is given in the change beginBy-lawchange end so that a continuous flow from a fixture may be converted from litres per second to fixture units in order to determine the total hydraulic load on the sanitary drainage system. The conversion factor, which is given in Sentence 2.4.10.3.(1), is 31.7 fixture units per litres per second. The discharge from a continuous flow fixture in litres per second when multiplied by 31.7 gives the hydraulic load in fixture units, and that load is added to the fixture unit load from other fixtures to give the total load that the sanitary drainage pipe must carry.
Figure A-2.4.10.
Relationship between Fixture Units and Demand
The hydraulic load that is produced by storm water runoff depends both on the size of the area that is drained and local rainfall intensity. The capacities of storm drainage pipes and combined sewers in Tables 2.4.10.9., 2.4.10.10. and 2.4.10.11. have been expressed in terms of the number of litres that they can carry when the local rainfall intensity is 1 mm in 15 min. The hydraulic load for a particular location is obtained by simply multiplying the rainfall intensity figure given in Appendix C of Division B of change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end by the actual area drained as specified in Sentence 2.4.10.4.(1).
In the case of restricted-flow drains, the hydraulic load from storm water runoff must be calculated using manufacturer discharge flow rates of specific drains in the case of roofs, and water-flow restrictors in the case of paved areas.
When plumbing fixtures are connected to a combined sewer, the hydraulic load from the fixtures must be converted from fixture units to litres or, in the case of continuous flow, from litres per second to litres so that these loads can be added to the hydraulic loads from roofs and paved surfaces. As already pointed out, the relationship between fixture units and litres per second and, consequently, the relationship between fixture units and litres is not straightforward, and an approximate conversion factor has been adopted. The conversion factor given in Sentence 2.4.10.5.(1) is 9.1 L/fixture unit, except where the load is less than 260 fixture units in which case a round figure of 2 360 L is to be used. In the case of continuous-flow fixtures that are connected to combined sewers or storm sewers, the conversion factor given in Sentence 2.4.10.3.(2) is 900 L per L/s. This conversion factor is not an approximation but an exact calculation.
The conversion factors given in Sentences 2.4.10.3.(1) and 2.4.10.5.(1) are designed to convert in one direction only, and must not be used to convert from fixture units to litres per second in the one instance, nor from litres to fixture units in the other instance.
In summary, it should be noted that
  1. in sanitary drainage systems, all hydraulic loads are converted to fixture units, and
  2. in storm drainage systems or combined drainage systems, all hydraulic loads are converted to litres.
Procedure for Selecting Pipe Sizes
The following is an outline, with examples, of the procedures to be followed in determining the size of each section of drainage piping.
  1. Sanitary drainage pipes, such as branches, stacks, building drains or building sewers:
    1. Determine the load in fixture units from all fixtures except continuous-flow fixtures;
    2. Determine the load in litres per second from all continuous-flow fixtures and multiply the number of litres per second by 31.7 to obtain the number of fixture units;
    3. Add loads (a) and (b) to obtain the total hydraulic load on the pipe in fixture units; and
    4. Consult the appropriate table from Tables 2.4.10.6.A, 2.4.10.6.B or 2.4.10.6.C to select the pipe size.
      (Note that no pipe size may be smaller than that permitted in Subsection 2.4.9.)
  2. Storm drainage pipes, such as gutters, leaders, horizontal pipes, building drains or building sewers:
    1. Determine the area in square metres of roofs and paved surfaces according to Sentence 2.4.10.4.(1);
    2. Determine the local rainfall intensity (15 min rainfall) from Appendix C of Division B of change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end;
    3. Multiply (a) by (b) to obtain the hydraulic load in litres;
    4. If a fixture discharges a continuous flow to the storm system, multiply its load in litres per second by 900 to obtain the hydraulic load in litres;
    5. If flow control roof drains are used, compute the discharge rate based on rain intensity, retention duration, accumulation height and roof area from the roof drain manufacturers' data;
    6. Add loads (c) or (e), and (d) to obtain the total hydraulic load on the pipe in litres; and
    7. Consult the appropriate table from Tables 2.4.10.9., 2.4.10.10. or 2.4.10.11. to select the pipe or gutter size.
      (Note that no pipe may be smaller than that permitted in Subsection 2.4.9.)
  3. Combined drainage pipes, such as building sewers:
    1. Determine the total load in fixture units from all fixtures except continuous-flow fixtures;
    2. If the fixture unit load exceeds 260, multiply it by 9.1 to determine the equivalent hydraulic load in litres. If the fixture unit load is 260 or fewer fixture units, the hydraulic load is 2 360 L;
    3. Obtain the hydraulic load from roofs and paved surfaces in the same manner as for storm drains (see 2(a), (b), (c) and (e));
    4. Obtain the hydraulic load in litres from any continuous-flow source that is connected to the sanitary or storm drainage system in the same manner as for storm drainage pipes (see 2(d));
    5. Add hydraulic loads (b), (c) and (d) to obtain the total hydraulic load on the pipe in litres; and
    6. Consult Table 2.4.10.9. to select the pipe size.
      (Note that no pipe may be smaller than that permitted in Subsection 2.4.9.)
Examples
Example 1: Determination of the size of storm drainage components for the building shown in Figures A-2.4.10.-A and A-2.4.10.-B
Step No. 1: Determine the hydraulic load from the roofs.
Area drained by gutter= 162 m2
Area drained by roof drain= 230.4 m2
If the local rainfall intensity is 25 mm:
     the load on the gutter (leader No. 2) is (25 × 162)= 4 050 L
     the load on the roof drain (leader No. 1) is (25 × 230.4)= 5 760 L
If the local rainfall intensity is 15 mm:
     the load on the gutter (leader No. 2) is (15 × 162)= 2 430 L
     the load on the roof drain (leader No. 1) is (15 × 230.4)= 3 456 L
Step No. 2: Determine the size of storm drainage components.
Using the appropriate hydraulic loads, the size of storm drainage components can be determined from Tables 2.4.10.9., 2.4.10.10. and 2.4.10.11. These values are tabulated in Table A-2.4.10. for rainfall intensities of 25 mm and 15 mm in 15 min.
Figure A-2.4.10.-A
Storm Drainage Areas (Example 1)
Figure A-2.4.10.-B
Storm Drainage Components (Example 1) (Elevation View)
Table A-2.4.10.
Storm Drainage Pipe Sizes (Example 1)
Forming part of Appendix Note A-2.4.10.
 

Area Drained, m2

15-min Rainfall Intensity, mm

change beginBy-lawchange end Reference Table No.
25 15
Hydraulic Load, L Size, inches Hydraulic Load, L Size, inches
Roof drain leader 230.4 5 760 4 3 456 3 2.4.10.11.
Gutter 162 4 050 8 2 430 7 2.4.10.10.
Gutter leader 162 4 050 3 2 430 2.4.10.11.
Storm building drain 230.4 5 760 5 3 456 4 2.4.10.9.
Storm building sewer 395.8 9 895 6 5 936 5 2.4.10.9.
Example 2: Determination of the size of drainage pipes for buildings
Figure A-2.4.10.-C represents an office building with washrooms for men and women, a drinking fountain and cleaner's closet on each typical floor. The equipment room with facilities is located in the basement. The building is 18 m by 30 m and is to be built change beginwhere the rainfall intensity is 28 mm in 15 minuteschange end.
  1. Hydraulic Load per Typical Floor
    5 WC @ 6= 30 fixture units
    2 UR @ 1½=  3 fixture units
    4 LAV @ 1½=  6 fixture units
    2 FD @ 3=  6 fixture units
    1 FS @ 3=  3 fixture units
    1 DF @ 1=  1 fixture unit
    49 fixture units
    The reader is left to calculate the size of the branches, one of which must be 4 inches and another 3 inches (see Subsection 2.4.9.). Therefore the smallest part of the stack must be 4 inches.
  2. Hydraulic Load on Stack
    5 storeys @ 49 fixture units = 245 fixture units
    Table 2.4.10.6.A permits 4-inch pipe. Use 4-inch pipe.
  3. Hydraulic Load on Basement Branch
    1 WC @ 6=  6 fixture units
    1 LAV @ 1=  1 fixture unit
    2 FD @ 3=  6 fixture units
    1 FS @ 3=  3 fixture units
    Semi-continuous Flow
    0.23 L/s × 31.7=  7 fixture units
    23 fixture units
    Table 2.4.10.6.B permits 3-inch pipe. Use 3-inch pipe.
  4. Hydraulic Load on Building Drain
    From soil-or-waste stack245 fixture units
    From basement branch  23 fixture units
    268 fixture units
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.6.C, at a slope of 1 in 50, a 4-inch pipe will carry 240 fixture units.
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.6.C, at a slope of 1 in 25, a 4-inch pipe will carry 300 fixture units.
    For practical reasons, use a 4-inch pipe at a slope of not less than 1 in 32.
    Figure A-2.4.10.-C
    Building Drainage System (Example 2)
  5. Storm Load
    Area of roof 18 × 30 = 540 m 2
    Rainfall intensity can be obtained from change beginArticle 1.1.3.1. of Division B of Book I (General) of this By-lawchange end, and in this example it is 28 mm in 15 min
    Total hydraulic storm load = 28 × 540 = 15 120 L
    Storm load on each roof drain = 15 120/2 = 7 560 L
  6. Size of Horizontal Leaders
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.9., at a slope of 1 in 25, a 4-inch pipe will carry a load of 8 430 L.
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.9., at a slope of 1 in 100, a 5-inch pipe will carry a load of 7 650 L.
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.9., at a slope of 1 in 133, a 6-inch pipe will carry a load of 10 700 L.
    Therefore, use a 5-inch pipe at a slope of 1 in 100.
  7. Size of Vertical Leader
    Table 2.4.10.11. would permit a 5-inch pipe (19 500 L) but this size is not readily available. For practical reasons, use a 6-inch pipe.
  8. Size of Storm Building Drains
    Since a drainage pipe cannot be any smaller than any upstream pipes, the storm building drain must be at least 6 inches. Referring again to Table 2.4.10.9., a 6-inch pipe will carry a hydraulic load of 17 600 L at a slope of  1 in 50. Therefore use a 6-inch pipe at a slightly higher slope.
  9. Size of Combined Building Sewer
    1. Total sanitary load excluding semi-continuous flow 260 fixture units converted to litres (Clause 2.4.10.5.(1)(b)) × 9.1 = 2 366 L
    2. Semi-continuous flow 0.23 L/s converted to litres (Sentence 2.4.10.3.(2)) × 900 = 207 L
    3. Storm load 15 120 L
      Total hydraulic load 17 693 L
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.9., at a slope of 1 in 50, a 6-inch pipe will carry 17 600 L.
    Referring to Table 2.4.10.9., at a slope of 1 in 25, a 6-inch pipe will carry 24 900 L.
    Therefore, use a 6-inch pipe at a slope of not less than 1 in 32.

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A-2.4.10.4.(1) Rainfall Intensities
Climate information on rainfall intensities for Vancouver can be found in Subsection 1.1.3. of Division B of change beginBook I (General) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end.
When calculating the hydraulic load from a roof or paved surface, it should be noted that a 1 mm depth of water on 1 m2 of surface is equivalent to 1 L.

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A-2.5.1.1.(3) Trapping of Floor Drains
Figure A-2.5.1.1.(3)
Trapping of Floor Drains
A-2.5.1.1.(4) Venting not Required
Figure A-2.5.1.1.(4)
Venting not Required
A-2.5.2.1. Wet Venting
Single-storey and multi-storey wet venting has been replaced with wet venting (Article 2.5.2.1.) and circuit venting (Article 2.5.3.1.).
The information and figures presented in this Appendix Note are examples of the most common installation practices that meet requirements change beginof Book II (Plumbing Systems) of this change beginBy-lawchange endchange end. However, the examples shown do not preclude other installations that would also conform to change beginthosechange end requirements.
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-A
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(b)
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-B
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(c)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-B:

(1)
A symmetrical connection is accomplished with a manufactured fitting that has two or more inlets and connects two or more waste lines to a vent or wet vent.
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-C
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(d)
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-D
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(e)
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-E
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(f)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-E:

(1)
The load from the separately vented kitchen sink is included when sizing this pipe.
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-F
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(f)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-F:

(1)
The load from the separately vented lavatory basin is included when sizing this pipe.
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-G
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(f)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-G:

(1)
The load from the separately vented bar sink is included when sizing this pipe.
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-H
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(g)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-H:

(1)
The load from the separately vented kitchen sink is not included when sizing this pipe.
Figure A-2.5.2.1.-I
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(i)
Notes to Figure A-2.5.2.1.-I:

(1)
“Offset” means the piping that connects the ends of 2 pipes that are parallel.
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-J
Example of Wet Venting Described in Subclause 2.5.2.1.(1)(i)(i)
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-K
Example of Wet Venting Described in Subclause 2.5.2.1.(1)(i)(ii)
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-L
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(j)
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Figure A-2.5.2.1.-M
Example of Wet Venting Described in Clause 2.5.2.1.(1)(k)

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