(See Part 10)
[Rev. 2, B.C. Reg. 73/2008.]
1) Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, including mechanical refrigeration equipment, shall be designed, constructed and installed in conformance with good engineering practice such as that described in, but not limited to,
a)the ASHRAE Handbooks and Standards,
b)the HRAI Digest,
c)the Hydronics Institute Manuals,
d)the NFPA Standards,
e)the SMACNA Manuals,
f)the Industrial Ventilation Manual published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
g)CAN/CSA-B214,“Installation Code for Hydronic Heating Systems,” and
h)CAN/CSA-Z317.2, “Special Requirements for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems in Health Care Facilities.”
1) The fire safety characteristics of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems shall comply with Subsection 3.6.5.
2) Characteristics referred to in Sentence (1) include but are not limited to
a)use of combustible materials in duct systems,
b) flame-spread ratings and smoke-developed ratings of duct and pipe materials and coverings,
c)installation of equipment relative to property lines, and
d)requirements for fire dampers and fire-stop flaps.
1) Mechanical systems and equipment shall be designed and installed to accommodate the maximum relative structural movement provided for in the construction of the building. (See Article 18.104.22.168., Subsection 4.1.8. and Sentence 22.214.171.124.(2) for information on the types of structural movements that may be encountered.)
1) Except as provided in Articles 126.96.36.199. and 188.8.131.52., the installation of heating and air-conditioning equipment, including mechanical refrigeration equipment, and including provisions for mounting, clearances and air supply, shall conform to the requirements of
a)CAN/CSA-B139-M, “Installation Code for Oil Burning Equipment,” for the installation of oil burning equipment,
b)the “Gas Safety Regulation” for the installation of natural gas and propane burning equipment,
c)the “Electrical Safety Regulation,”
d)the “Power Engineers, Boiler, Pressure Vessel and Refrigeration Safety Regulation” for the installation of boilers, pressure vessels, pressure piping and mechanical refrigeration, and
e)CAN/CSA B365-M, “Installation Code for Solid-Fuel Burning Appliances and Equipment.”
1) Fireplaces shall conform to the requirements of Section 9.22.
1) Heat recovery ventilators with rated capacities of not less than 25 L/s and not more than 200 L/s shall be installed in accordance with Subsection 9.32.3.
1) The outside conditions to be used in designing heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems shall be determined in conformance with Subsection 1.1.3.
1) Equipment requiring periodic maintenance and forming part of a heating, ventilating or air-conditioning system shall be installed with provision for access for inspection, maintenance, repair and cleaning.
(See Appendix A.)
2) Mechanical equipment shall be provided with guards so as to prevent injury.
3) Heating, ventilating or air-conditioning systems shall be protected from freezing if they may be adversely affected by freezing temperatures.
1) Heating and cooling systems shall be designed to allow for expansion and contraction of the heat transfer fluid and to maintain the system pressure within the rated working pressure limits of all components of the system.
1) Asbestos shall not be used in air distribution systems or equipment in a form or in a location where asbestos fibres could enter the air supply or return systems.
1) Any covering of an access opening through which a person could enter shall be openable from the inside without the use of keys where there is a possibility of the opening being accidentally closed while the system or equipment is being serviced.
1) Except as provided in Sentence (3), all buildings shall be ventilated in accordance with this Part.
2) Except in storage garages covered by Article 184.108.40.206., the rates at which outdoor air is supplied in buildings by ventilation systems shall be not less than the rates required by ANSI/ASHRAE 62, “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.”
3) Self-contained mechanical ventilation systems serving only one dwelling unit that conform to the requirements of Subsection 9.32.3. shall be considered to satisfy the requirements of this Article.
1) Except as permitted by Sentence (2), the ventilation required by Article 220.127.116.11. shall be provided by mechanical ventilation, except that it can be provided by natural ventilation or a combination of natural and mechanical ventilation in
a) buildings of other than residential occupancy having an occupant load of not more than one person per 40 m2 during normal use,
b) buildings of industrial occupancy where the nature of the processes contained therein permits or requires the use of large openings in the building envelope even during the winter, and
c)seasonal buildings not intended to be occupied during the winter.(See Appendix A.)
2) Where climatic conditions permit, buildings containing occupancies other than residential occupancies may be ventilated by natural ventilation methods in lieu of mechanical ventilation where engineering data demonstrates that such a method will provide the required ventilation for the type of occupancy.
1) Except as provided in Sentences (4) and (6), an enclosed storage garage shall have a mechanical ventilation system designed to
a)limit the concentration of carbon monoxide to not more than 100 parts per million parts of air,
b) limit the concentration of nitrogen dioxide to not more than 3 parts per million parts of air, where the majority of the vehicles stored are powered by diesel-fuelled engines, or
c)provide, during operating hours, a continuous supply of outdoor air at a rate of not less than 3.9 L/s for each square metre of floor area (see Article 18.104.22.168.).(See also Sentence 22.214.171.124.(4).)
2) Mechanical ventilation systems provided in accordance with Clause 126.96.36.199.(1)(a) shall be controlled by carbon monoxide monitoring devices, and systems provided in accordance with Clause 188.8.131.52.(1)(b) shall be controlled by nitrogen dioxide or other acceptable monitoring devices. (See Appendix A.)
3) Mechanical ventilation systems provided in accordance with Sentence (1) shall be designed such that the pressure in the storage garage is less than the pressure in adjoining buildings of other occupancy, or in adjacent portions of the same building having a different occupancy.
4) In storage garages subject to the requirements of Sentences (1) and (2), where motor vehicles are parked by mechanical means, the ventilation requirements may be reduced by one half.
5) Except as provided in Sentence (6), ticket and attendant booths of storage garages shall be pressurized with a supply of uncontaminated air.
6) The requirements of Sentences (1) to (5) shall not apply to open-air storeys in a storage garage.
1) Air contaminants released within buildings shall be removed insofar as possible at their points of origin and shall not be permitted to accumulate in concentrations greater than permitted in the Industrial Ventilation Manual published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
2) Systems serving spaces that contain sources of contamination and systems serving other occupied parts of the building but located in or running through spaces that contain sources of contamination shall be designed in such a manner as to prevent spreading of such contamination to other occupied parts of the building.
3) Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems shall be designed to minimize the growth of micro-organisms.
(See Appendix A.)
1) Systems serving spaces that contain hazardous gases, dusts or liquids shall be designed, constructed and installed to conform to the requirements of the applicable provincial enactments or city by-laws or, in the absence of such regulations or bylaws, to good engineering practice such as that described in the publications of the National Fire Protection Association and in the Fire By-law. (See Appendix A.)
1) Systems for the ventilation of commercial cooking equipment shall be designed, constructed and installed to conform to NFPA 96, “Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations,” except as required by Sentence (3), Sentence (4), Sentence 184.108.40.206.(1) and Article 220.127.116.11.
2) Fire protection systems for commercial cooking equipment referred to in Sentence (1) using vegetable oil or animal fat shall conform to
a)UL-300, “Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas,” or
b)ULC/ORD-C1254.6, “Fire Testing of Restaurant Cooking Area Fire Extinguishing System Units.”
3) A commercial cooking exhaust shall discharge through an ecology unit where the wall termination is within 3 m of a lane property line or street property line. [See Appendix A.]
4) A wall termination shall be located such that
a)a concentrated stream of air will not discharge directly onto pedestrians,
b)discharged exhaust will not accumulate in an area with outdoor seating, and
c)the sound pressure level generated will be attenuated to be in compliance with the Noise Control By-law.[See Appendix A.]
1) Unconditioned and unoccupied crawl spaces and unconditioned and unoccupied attic or roof spaces shall be ventilated by natural or mechanical means as required by Part 5. (See Appendix A.)
1) This Subsection applies to the design, construction and installation of air duct distribution systems serving heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems other than those in dwelling units covered by Part 9.
1) All ducts, duct connectors, associated fittings and plenums used in air duct systems shall be constructed of materials as described in Article 18.104.22.168.
2) Ducts that are used in a location where they may be subjected to excessive moisture shall have no appreciable loss of strength when wet and shall be resistant to moisture-induced corrosion.
3) All ductwork and fittings shall be constructed and installed as recommended in SMACNA Manuals and ASHRAE Standards.
4) All duct materials shall be suitable for exposure to the temperature and humidity of the air being carried and shall be resistant to corrosion caused by contaminants in the air being conveyed in the duct.
1) Air duct systems shall have
a)tight-fitting connections throughout, and
b)no openings other than those required for the proper operation and maintenance of the system.
2) Access openings shall be provided in duct systems to allow the removal of material that may accumulate in plenums and ducts.
1) Coverings, linings and associated adhesives and insulation used in air ducts, plenums and other parts of air duct systems shall comply with Article 22.214.171.124.
2) Insulation and coverings on piping used in heating systems shall comply with Article 126.96.36.199.
3) Duct linings shall be installed so that they will not interfere with the operation of volume or balancing dampers or of fire dampers, fire stop flaps and other closures.
1) Underground ducts shall
a)be constructed and installed to provide interior drainage from and access to all low points,
b) not be connected directly to a sewer, and
c) be installed and constructed of materials recommended by ASHRAE and SMACNA Standards and HRAI Manuals.
2) A clean-out or pump-out connection shall be provided in an underground duct system at every low point of the duct system.
1) Fire dampers shall conform to Article 188.8.131.52.
1) Air handling systems shall incorporate smoke detectors where and as required by Article 184.108.40.206.
1) Except as provided in Sentence (2), exhaust ducts of non-mechanical ventilating systems serving separate rooms or spaces shall not be combined.
2) Exhaust ducts of non-mechanical ventilating systems serving similar occupancies may be combined immediately below the point of final delivery to the outside, such as at the base of a roof ventilator.
3) Exhaust ducts of ventilating systems shall have provision for the removal of condensation where this may be a problem.
4) Exhaust outlets shall be designed to prevent backdraft under wind conditions.
5) Except as permitted in Sentence (6), exhaust systems shall discharge directly to the outdoors. (See Appendix A.)
6) Exhaust systems are permitted to exhaust into a storage garage, provided
a)they serve rooms that are accessible only from that storage garage,
b) the exhaust contains no contaminants that would adversely affect the air quality in the storage garage (see Appendix A), and
c) they are designed in accordance with Sentence 220.127.116.11.(3).(See Appendix A.)
7) Exhaust ducts connected to laundry drying equipment shall be
a)independent of other exhaust ducts,
b) accessible for inspection and cleaning, and
c) constructed of a smooth corrosion-resistant material.
8) Except as provided in Sentence (10) and except for self-contained systems serving individual dwelling units, exhaust ducts serving rooms containing water closets, urinals, basins, showers or slop sinks shall be independent of other exhaust ducts.
9) Except as provided in Sentence (10) and except for self-contained systems serving individual dwelling units, exhaust ducts serving rooms containing residential cooking equipment shall be independent of other exhaust ducts.
10) Two or more exhaust systems described in Sentences (8) and (9) may be interconnected or connected with exhaust ducts serving other areas of the building, provided
a)the connections are made at the inlet of an exhaust fan, and all interconnected systems are equipped with suitable back pressure devices to prevent the passage of odours from one system to another when the fan is not in operation, or
b)the exhaust ducts discharge to a shaft that is served by an exhaust fan having a capacity that is equal to or greater than the combined capacity of the exhaust fans discharging to the plenum multiplied by the operation diversity factor, provided that the exhaust fan serving the shaft operates continuously (see Appendix A).
11) Where exhaust ducts containing air from conditioned spaces pass through or are adjacent to unconditioned spaces, the ducts shall be constructed to prevent condensation from forming on the inside or outside of the ducts.
12) Where an exhaust duct system is used for smoke removal in a high building, the requirements of Article 18.104.22.168. shall apply.
13) Where exhaust duct systems from more than one fire compartment are connected to an exhaust duct in a vertical service space, the requirements of Article 22.214.171.124. shall apply.
1) In a residential occupancy, air from one suite shall not be circulated to any other suite or to a public corridor.
2) Except as permitted by Sentences (3) and 126.96.36.199.(6), air duct systems serving storage garages shall not be directly interconnected with other parts of the building.
3) Exhaust ducts referred to in Sentence 188.8.131.52.(8) may exhaust through an enclosed storage garage prior to exhausting to the outdoors, provided
a)the storage garage's exhaust system runs continuously,
b)the capacity of the storage garage's exhaust system is equal to or exceeds the volume of the exhaust entering the garage, and
c)a leakage rate 1 smoke/fire damper rated in accordance with CAN/ULC-S112.1-M, “Leakage Rated Dampers for Use in Smoke Control Systems,” is provided near the duct outlet location in the storage garage to prevent air from the storage garage from entering the exhaust ductwork system in the event the building's exhaust fan is shut down.
1) Where ducts penetrate fire separations separating exits from the remainder of the building, they shall be in accordance with Article 184.108.40.206.
1) In ventilating systems that exhaust air to the outdoors, provision shall be made for the admission of a supply of makeup air in sufficient quantity so that the operation of the exhaust system and other exhaust equipment or combustion equipment is not adversely affected.
2) Makeup air facilities required by Sentence (1) shall be interlocked with the exhaust devices they serve so that both operate together.
3) Where makeup air facilities are intended to introduce air directly from the outdoors to occupied parts of the building in winter, they shall incorporate means of tempering that air to maintain the indoor design temperature.
1) Supply, return and exhaust air openings located less than 2 m above the floor in rooms or spaces in buildings shall be protected by grilles having openings of a size that will not allow the passage of a 15 mm diam sphere.
2) Outdoor air intakes and exhaust outlets on the exterior of buildings shall be designed or located so that air entering the building system does not contain more contaminants than the normal exterior air of the locality in which the building is situated.
3) Exterior openings for outdoor air intakes and exhaust outlets shall be shielded from the entry of snow and rain and shall be fitted with corrosion-resistant screens of mesh having openings not larger than 15 mm, except where experience has shown that climatic conditions require larger openings to prevent the screen openings from icing over.
4) Screens required in Sentence (3) shall be accessible for maintenance.
5) Combustible grilles, diffusers and other devices covering supply, return, intake and exhaust openings shall comply with Article 220.127.116.11.
1) Air filters for air duct systems shall conform to the requirements for Class 2 air filter units as described in ULC-S111, “Fire Tests for Air Filter Units.”
2) When electrostatic-type filters are used, they shall be installed so as to ensure that the electric circuit is automatically de-energized when filter access doors are opened or, in dwelling units, when the furnace circulation fan is not operating.
3) When odour removal equipment of the adsorption type is used, it shall be
a)installed to allow access so that adsorption material can be reactivated or renewed, and
b)protected from dust accumulation by air filters installed on the inlet side.
4) Facilities for flushing and drainage shall be provided where filters are designed to be washed in place.
1) The filter and water evaporation medium of every air washer and evaporative cooling section enclosed within a building shall be made of noncombustible material.
2) Sumps for air washers and evaporative cooling sections shall be constructed and installed so that they can be flushed and drained.
3) Evaporative cooling sections or towers shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 214, “Water-Cooling Towers.”
1) Fans for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems shall be located and installed so that their operation
a)does not adversely affect the draft required for proper operation of fuel-fired appliances, and
b)does not allow the air in the duct system to be contaminated by air or gases from the boiler room or furnace room.
2) Fans and associated air-handling equipment, such as air washers, filters and heating and cooling units, when installed on the roof or elsewhere outside the building, shall be of a type designed for outdoor use.
1) Vibration isolation connectors in air duct systems shall comply with Article 18.104.22.168.
1) Tape used for sealing joints in air ducts, plenums and other parts of air duct systems shall comply with Article 22.214.171.124.
1) Insulation and coverings on pipes shall comply with Article 126.96.36.199.
1) The clearance of ducts and plenums from combustible materials shall comply with Article 188.8.131.52.
1) Return-air systems shall comply with Article 184.108.40.206.
2) Where a ceiling space is used as a return-air plenum, the requirements of Article 220.127.116.11. shall apply.
3) A public corridor or exit shall not be used as a return-air plenum.
1) This Article applies to every building that contains a residential occupancy and that also contains
a)a fuel-burning appliance, or
b)a storage garage.
2) Carbon monoxide alarms required by this Article shall
a)conform to CAN/CSA-6.19, “Residential Carbon Monoxide Alarming Devices,”
b)be equipped with an integral alarm that satisfies the audibility requirements of CAN/CSA-6.19, “Residential Carbon Monoxide Alarming Devices,”
c)have no disconnect switch between the overcurrent device and the carbon monoxide alarm, where the carbon monoxide alarm is powered by the dwelling unit's electrical system (see Appendix A), and
d)be mechanically fixed at a height above the floor as recommended by the manufacturer.
3) Where a fuel-burning appliance is installed in a suite of residential occupancy, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed
a)inside each bedroom, or
b)outside each bedroom, within 5 m of each bedroom door, measured following corridors and doorways.
4) Where a fuel-burning appliance is installed in a service room that is not in a suite of residential occupancy, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed
a)either inside each bedroom, or if outside, within 5 m of each bedroom door, measured following corridors and doorways, in every suite of residential occupancy that shares a wall or floor/ceiling assembly with the service room, and
b)in the service room.
5) For each suite of residential occupancy that shares a wall or floor/ceiling assembly with a storage garage or that is adjacent to an attic or crawl space to which the storage garage is also adjacent, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed
a)inside each bedroom, or
b)outside each bedroom, within 5 m of each bedroom door, measured following corridors and doorways.
1) Except for appliances installed in dwelling units, fuel-fired heating appliances shall be located, enclosed or separated from the remainder of the building in conformance with Section 3.6. (See also Subsection 9.10.10.)
1) Fuel-fired appliances installed outside a building shall be designed and constructed for outdoor use.
1) The design, construction, installation and alteration of every indoor incinerator shall conform to NFPA 82, “Incinerators and Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment.”
1) Every unit heater using either steam or hot water as the heating medium shall be installed such that the clearances between the appliance and adjacent combustible material conform to Table 18.104.22.168.
1) A noncombustible lining or backing shall be provided for every steam or hot water radiator and convector
a)located in a recess or concealed space, or
b)attached to the face of a wall of combustible construction.
2) Every steam or hot water radiator and convector shall be installed so as to conform to the clearance requirements of Table 22.214.171.124.
1) Piping shall be made from materials designed to withstand the effects of temperatures and pressures that may occur in the system. (See Articles 126.96.36.199., 188.8.131.52., 184.108.40.206. and 220.127.116.11. for fire safety requirements.)
2) Every pipe used in a heating or air-conditioning system shall be installed to allow for expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.
3) Supports and anchors for piping in a heating or air-conditioning system shall be designed and installed to ensure that undue stress is not placed on the supporting structure.
1) Insulation and coverings on pipes shall be composed of material that will withstand deterioration from softening, melting, mildew and mould at the operating temperature of the system.
2) Exposed piping or equipment subject to human contact shall be insulated so that the temperature of the exposed surface does not exceed 70°C. (See Appendix A.)
1) Clearances between combustible material and bare pipes carrying steam or hot water shall conform to Table 18.104.22.168.
| Table 22.214.171.124.
Clearance Between Steam or Hot Water Pipes and Combustible Material
Forming Part of Article 126.96.36.199.
|Steam or Water Temperature, °C||Minimum Clearance, mm|
|Up to 95||No clearance|
|Above 95 to 120||15|
1) The exposed surface temperature of a steam or hot water radiator shall not exceed 70°C unless precautions are taken to prevent human contact.
1) Where a pipe carrying steam or hot water at a temperature above 120°C passes through a combustible floor, ceiling or wall, the construction shall be protected by a sleeve of metal or other noncombustible material not less than 50 mm larger in diameter than the pipe.
1) Where piping for heating or air-conditioning systems is enclosed in a shaft, the requirements of Article 188.8.131.52. for shafts shall apply.
1) Where a cooling unit is combined with a fuel-fired furnace in the same duct system, the cooling unit shall be installed
a)in parallel with the heating furnace,
b)upstream of the furnace provided the furnace is designed for such application, or
c)downstream of the furnace provided the cooling unit is designed to prevent excessive temperature or pressure in the refrigeration system.
1) Service pipes passing through a storage bin for solid fuel shall be protected or so located as to avoid damage to the pipes.
2) Except for fuel-thawing pipes, every pipe designed to operate at a temperature of 50°C or above shall be located where solid fuel cannot be stored in contact with it.
3) A storage bin for solid fuel shall not be located above a sewer opening or drain opening.
4) Storage bins for solid fuel shall be designed and constructed so that the air temperature in the bin or the surface temperature of any part of the floor or walls is below 50°C.
1) Every ash storage bin shall be constructed of noncombustible material.
2) Every opening in an ash storage bin shall be protected by a tight-fitting metal door with metal frame securely fastened to the bin.